Cancer or malignancy is the disease which the cells of a tissue undergo uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation. There are above 100 types of cancer which include colon cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma and prostate cancer. Therefore, is a kind of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade other part of the body?
They also form a subset of neoplasm or tumor which is a group of cells that has undergo the kind of growth that is not regulated and will also form a mass or lump, but may haps distributed diffusely. All neoplasm cells show the six hallmarks of cancer which are
[1, cancer cells stimulate their own growth that is, self-sufficiency in growth signal.
2, they also resist inhibitory signals which may otherwise stop their growth. This implies insensitivity to ant- growth signals.
3, they can grow rapidly (LIMITED REPLICATIVE POTENTIAL).
4, they counter their programmed cell death (EVADING APOPTOSIS). 5, they also arouse the growth of blood vessels to supply nutrients to tumor. 6, they attack local tissue and spread to distant sites].
The use of tobacco is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is caused by poor diet, lack of physical activities, poor diet, and excessive drinking of alcohol.
Other causes include certain infections such as exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In some developing part of the world, 15% of cancers are caused by infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori. Cancer can be discovered by some signs and symptoms or screening tests.
When it begins, it comes with no signs and it can appear as the mass ulcerates the treatment may include radiation, chemotherapy and surgery. People living with cancer may undergo some types of surgery the purpose of this surgery is to remove tumors and areas with cancer. In most cases, surgery is the best chance of getting rid of the disease if it has not spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy which is also one of the common ways to treat cancer, is the way by which certain drugs are prescribed by the doctor to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing and spreading to other part of the body. The drugs help the body to regain strength, grow new and healthy cell, the drugs might be prescribed to be taken over a few weeks. The dose might be taken every day, every week, or every month. It has to do with how severe or the type of the cancer.
|Change in bowel movement, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, abnormal bleeding and lump
|Excessive alcohol, lack of physical activity, poor diet, obesity, tobacco
|Chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy.
|Average 5 year survival 66% (USA)
|90.5 million (2015)
|8.8 million (2015)