Stress is the body’s reaction to change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or responses. It’s also an excessive demand made upon the body. It’s an affective behavioral and physical response to aversive stimuli in the environment. It is a state within the organism, which manifests itself by general adaptation syndrome.

It suggests excessive demands that produce disturbance of the physiological, social and psychological systems. Stress can also be seen as physical and psychological strain or tension that is generated through our day to day and experiences that are difficult to endure.


These are the events or circumstances that leads to someone feeling that physical or psychological demands are about to exceed his or her ability to cope. Stressors can be of several types such as:


Stress is very complex and it affects us in different way either by the work requirements or the kind of environment where we work. Employers should be aware of the work areas that stress their employees. But employers can only manage stress in their or fatigue situations they can reasonable be aware of. Therefore when employees are experiencing stress in their workplace, they should be free to express themselves to employers about the stress they are experiencing.

Employers should create an avenue in the workplace whereby that will give employees confidence that if they report their situation to their employer, manager, or supervisor everything possible will be done to deal with their problem. In practice, using Bucket model, help to explain concept of stress

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Bucket model suggests that stress and fatigue results when a person’s reservoir of personal resilience is drained faster than is replenished. Things like interesting work, supportive relationships, good health and rest fill bucket.  Working difficulties, conflicts, emotionally draining due to work stress and excess or not enough work and difficulties at home can drain the bucket. Coping is the ability of maintaining the balance between the stress factor.

Types of stress

Sources of stress can include


This is the affective, behavioral and physiological responses to aversive stimuli in the environment. This type of stress is caused by unpleasant events situations, experiences such as frustration, conflicts failure in life, death of a spouse or loved one, etc


Sociological stress is caused by what happens in the society and it is characterized by affecting many people simultaneously. It is caused by war, drought, poverty, overcrowding, industrialization, urbanization, etc.


Job stress is also known as job burnout and it is caused by excessive demands made upon workers by the organization or employers and can cause or contribute to physical and mental health problems, such as high blood pressure, ulcers, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Workplace stress is also as the result of the interaction between a person and their work environment. For individual, it is creating awareness of not to be cope to cope with the demands of their work environment, with an associated negative emotional response.


Managing stress or better yet, changing your behavior to healthfully respond to stress, should occur before, during and after stress. Managing stress before it happens means incorporating daily practices that will prepare your mind and body to handle the effects of techniques such as reducing caffeine, as well as incorporate some others. Finally, after the stressor is eliminated (if that is even possible), continue to proactively manage stress. Some technique to be consider to manage stress also include


Exercising not only keeps heart strong and resistant to the effects of stress, but can also help reduce stress levels during particular stressful moments. It is a good idea to incorporate some kind of exercise program into life at least three or four times a week for 20 minutes. Grate benefit can be got from walking, swimming, running, playing sports or climbing stairs because these strength cardiovascular system, thereby making more resistant to the effect of stress.


Humour has been shown to buffer stress in several ways. First, it can help put a new perspective on a stress situation. You have probably heard many jokes about death- many of which are told by police officers, doctors and morticians! The purpose of such jokes is not to hurt feelings or show callousness but to better deal with an uncomfortable topic that we all must face sooner or later. It is better to laugh at it than to dwell over what we cannot control. But be careful when telling such jokes: Not everyone will appreciate the humour, and a little sensitivity and common sense should be exercised before sharing it.


Foods that have been shown to counteract the effects of stress include fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and non-fat yoghurt, which contain vitamin B that is considered to be lost during high-stress periods of time.


Studies show that sleep deprivation or lack of sleep can cause negative behavior such as irritability, fatigue, lack of concentration, and even depression. Alcohol can severely affect sleep, although it may seem that it helps go to sleep. Studies show that the sleep of people who have had as little as two drinks before bed is interrupted several times a night. In addition, it is also advisable to stay away from caffeine at least six hours before going to bed.


Improving coping skills often means learning how to deal with conflict. It also means learning how to accept what you cannot change. Workers who participate in stress management classes should know that they cannot change the fact that their organizations are downsizing or that restructuring is the trend for today’s companies. Spending energy and time worrying about it or being angry is a waste of time. The best solution for them is to find areas that they can control to meet organizational change.

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Last Update: April 23, 2019